Dreyfus Affair



Locations
Participants

Timeline

Y/M/D Description Place
1894/06/24 French President Sadi Carnot is assassinated in Lyon by an Italian anarchist, Caserio.
1894/06/27 Jean Casimir-Perier becomes the new President of the Republic.
1894/07/20 Major Ferdinand Walsin-Esterhazy who, through occasional contacts with the General Staff, was exposed to classified French information, offers his services to the German Military Attache, Lt Col von Schwartzkoppen, promising to pass on military secrets.
1894/08/15 Esterhazy receives payment by Schwartzkoppen for delivering classified mobilization documents.
1894/09/26 The French Intelligence Services intercept the "bordereau" memorandum (from Esterhazy, but not signed), received 1 Sept 1894 by Schwartzkoppen and conclude that the spy must be an artillery officer and a member of the General Staff.
1894/10/00 After consulting handwriting experts, General Mercier, General de Boisdeffre and General Gonse, are convinced that Dreyfus has been privy to the information leaked to the Germans. Commandant du Paty de Clam is placed in charge of the investigation.
1894/10/06 Dreyfus, 1 of 6 suspected officers, was from Alsace, had access to the secrete information and was Jewish, a fact noted by Sandherr and his deputy Colonel Fabre, both openly antisemitic. They sent their suspicions to General Mercier, the Minister of War.
1894/10/15 Wanting a handwriting sample, du Paty de Clam dictates a letter to Dreyfus based on the text of the "bordereau." Since they appear to match, Dreyfus is accused of spying, arrested and sent to the Cherche-Midi military prison in Paris (demo in 1966).
1894/10/15 Captain Dreyfus leaves his apartment at 6 Ave du Trocadero (now Ave du President Wilson), passes through the Place d'Alma, crosses the Seine over Alma Bridge, and walks to army headquarters on Rue Saint-Dominique at the summons of General Mercier.
1894/10/15 Captain Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for conspiring with the enemy and is told he will be brought before a Court Martial. He is imprisoned at the Cherche-Midi military prison in Paris (used from 1851 until 1947, demolished in 1966).
1894/11/03 Major d'Ormescheville starts the judicial investigation of the case. His final report, Dec. 3, 1894, recommends a Court-martial.
1894/12/19 Dreyfus Court-martial, December 19-22, Ordered by Mercier, Henry gives the judges a letter from the Italian Military Attache mentioning "this scoundrel of D...". Citing national security, Dreyfus' lawyer Edgar Demange is not informed of its existence.
1894/12/22 After several hours of deliberation at the Cherche-Midi (demolished in 1966), seven judges unanimously convict Alfred Dreyfus of collusion with a foreign power and is condemned to perpetual deportation and military degradation.
1894/12/31 Dreyfus' petition for appeal is rejected.
1895/01/05 Captain Dreyfus's degradation takes place in the Morlan Court of the Military School. A warrant-officer strips him of his badges, numbers and stripes, then draws Dreyfus' sword from its scabbard and breaks it across his knee. Ecole Militaire, Paris
1895/01/17 President of the Republic Felix Faure succeeds President Jean Casimir-Perier who has resigned over a minor political dispute . New Cabinet, with Prime Minister Alexandre Ribot. Ludovic Trarieux, Justice Minister.
1895/02/22 Dreyfus begins his journey to the penitentiary in French Guyana.
1895/03/12 Dreyfus arrives in French Guyana.
1895/03/12 After 15 day voyage, Alfred Dreyfus's ship anchors near the Iles du Salut off the coast of French Guiana. French Guiana, France
1895/04/13 Dreyfus is transferred to Devil's Island, where he will be placed in solitary confinement.
1895/04/14 Alfred Dreyfus is transferred to Devil's Island. Except for his guards, he was the only inhabitant of the island and he lived in a stone hut. He is barred from receiving letters and food packages from home. Devil's Island, French Guiana
1895/07/01 After a long illness, Colonel Sandherr is dying. A new Chief of Intelligence Services, Lt Col Georges Picquart, another Alsatian like Dreyfus, is chosen among the General staff officers, bypassing Major Henry.
1895/10/28 New Cabinet, with Prime Minister Leon Bourgeois.
1895/10/31 Through a leak from the Headquarters, Edouard Drumont, the publisher of the anti-Semitic paper La Libre Parole, learns of Captain Dreyfus's indictment. The next day, his paper begins a virulent campaign against Alfred Dreyfus.
1896/03/00 Another express letter from the German Embassy - "le petit bleu" - which this time identifies Major Esterhazy - is intercepted.
1896/04/29 New Cabinet, with Prime Minister Jules Meline. General Billot is Minister of War.
1896/05/05 Dreyfus writes in his diary: "I have no longer anything to say everything is alike in its horrible cruelty."
1896/07/30 Opening the Dreyfus file, Picquart is able to compare the Esterhazy's handwriting with that of the "bordereau" and gradually realizes that all the evidence brought against Dreyfus in 1894 are wrong.
1896/08/05 Picquart informs the Chief of the General Staff, General de Boisdeffre, of his suspicions about Esterhazy as the actual spy.
1896/09/03 Picquart fails to convince the Deputy Chief of the General Staff, General Gonse, of Dreyfus' innocence. It is feared Picquart would embarrass the General Staff if he keeps insisting in reopening the Dreyfus investigation.
1896/09/03 The English press is circulating the false news of Dreyfus' escape from Devil's island.
1896/09/06 On Sept 6th, Dreyfus is shackled and confined to his hut. On Sept 7th, he is barred from receiving letters and food packages from home. Devil's Island, French Guiana
1896/09/14 An article in L'Eclair mentions the secret file given to the judges during the trial of December 1894. In trying to prove Dreyfus' treason, the paper misquotes the letter changing "this scoundrel of D..." to "this scoundrel of Dreyfus".
1896/09/18 Citing the revelation of a secret file as new evidence for a mistrial, Lucie Dreyfus petitions the Chamber of Deputies in the name of her husband.
1896/09/18 Henry starts tampering with documents in order to incriminate definitely Dreyfus and discredit Picquart later.
1896/10/27 General de Boisdeffre and General Gonse transfer Picquart from his position and send him to a mission far removed from Paris.
1896/10/31 Major Henry produces "le faux Henry", a letter allegedly from the Italian Embassy to the German Attache specifically naming Dreyfus as their contact. The letter was actually fabricated by master-forger Lemercier-Picard while working for Henry.
1896/11/06 Lucie and Mathieu Dreyfus, the wife and the brother of Alfred, fight for a air trial. Inspired by their efforts, the writer Bernard-Lazare publishes his brochure Une Erreur judiciaire A Judicial Error: The Truth on the Dreyfus Affair in Brussels.
1896/11/10 Thanks to another leak from Headquarters, Le Matin boastingly publishes the copy of the first incriminating document of 1894, the "bordereau," as evidence of Dreyfus' treason.
1896/12/26 General Gonse sends trouble-maker Picquart to a dangerous mission in Tunisia where rebels are rising up against French colonial rule.
1897/06/21 June, 21-26, On a short leave in Paris, fearing retaliation, Picquart shares his convictions with the lawyer Louis Leblois, a long time friend from Alsace, but asks him not to reveal publicly his secret nor the name of Esterhazy.
1897/07/13 Picquart's lawyer Leblois meets with the VP of the Senate, the Alsatian Auguste Scheurer-Kestner, who, convinced of Dreyfus's innocence and begins an investigation. Sworn to secrecy by Leblois, Scheurer-Kestner cannot find proof of the frame-up.
1897/07/13 Unable to provide evidence of his claim, the cancer ridden Scheurer-Kestner is ridiculed by the anti-Semitic press as totally senile and bribed by a Jewish interest lobby, "le Syndicat".
1897/08/17 War Minister General Billot has Esterhazy retired from active duty in the Army "for temporary infirmity," because is has become an embarrassment.
1897/10/16 At a meeting with Billot, Gonse, Henry and du Paty de Clam decide to warn Esterhazy of the accusations pointed at him.
1897/10/18 Esterhazy receives a letter conceived by dy Paty de Clam, written by Mme Henry and signed "Esperance", warning him to be more careful.
1897/10/23 Esterhazy sees Schwartzkoppen for the last time. Later that day, in parc Montsouris, he has a secret interview with du Paty de Clam in disguise, who promises to protect him..
1897/10/29 Scheurer-Kestner has an inconclusive interview with President Felix Faure.
1897/10/30 Scheurer-Kestner has lunch with his old friend General Billot, who asks him to be patient.
1897/11/03 Scheurer-Kestner has an interview with Prime Minister Meline.
1897/11/06 Bernard-Lazare meets with Emile Zola.
1897/11/08 Leblois visits Zola.
1897/11/10 Esterhazy sends anonymous letters to Scheurer-Kestner requesting secrete meetings and has his mistress, Marguerite Pays, send mysterious notes signed "Speranza" and "Blanche" to Picquart.
1897/11/11 Mr de Castro, a stock-broker from South America, sees a copy of the bordereau on sale at a newspaper stand and recognizes the handwriting to be one of his clients, Major Esterhazy. Castro immediately contacts Mathieu Dreyfus.
1897/11/12 Mathieu Dreyfus goes to see Scheurer-Kestner to check if Esterhazy is the same individual whose identity he has sworn not to reveal. Scheurer-Kestner can finally confirms that Esterhazy is the actual traitor.
1897/11/12 At his home, Scheurer-Kestner has a meeting with Matthieu Dreyfus, Leblois and Zola, November 12-13.
1897/11/13 On Devil's Island, Dreyfus' hut is surrounded by a double eight feet high stockade, November 12-13.
1897/11/13 German authorities order Schwartzkoppen to leave his post in Paris.
1897/11/15 Scheurer-Kestner declares Dreyfus innocent in an open letter to Le Temps.
1897/11/15 Schwartzkoppen leaves Paris for his new position.
1897/11/16 Mathieu Dreyfus writes the Minister of Justice denouncing Esterhazy as the author of the "bordereau" and sues him.
1897/11/17 Because of the accusation, the Military Governor of Paris, General Saussier, orders the opening of an inquest on Esterhazy conducted by General de Pellieux.
1897/11/25 Zola starts a campaign in favor of Dreyfus' cause in Le Figaro.
1897/11/26 Picquart is recalled to Paris to be questioned as part of the Esterhazy investigation.
1897/11/28 Le Figaro begins publishing letters by Esterhazy (provided by one of his mistresses, Madame de Boulancy), in which he vents his contempt for the French, even dreaming to become a German Uhlan and be able to slaughter as many French soldiers as possible.
1897/12/03 General de Pellieux's inquest exonerating Esterhazy is followed by a second judicial investigation on him, conducted by Major Ravary.
1897/12/04 Prime Minister Jules Meline declares at the National Assembly: "There is NO Dreyfus affair whatsoever."
1897/12/07 Scheurer-Kestner tries to rally his colleagues at the Senate but no avail.
1897/12/13 Zola publishes "Letter to youth."
1897/12/26 Three handwriting experts, Belhomme, Varinard and Couard, declare the bordereau not to be by Esterhazy's hand.
1898/01/00 In his office at 21 rue de Bruxelles, Zola write the polemic "Jaccuse," a narrative regarding the affairs of Alfred Dreyfus Emile Zola Residence, Paris
1898/01/01 Final report by Ravary concludes that a case against Esterhazy lacks evidence and that there is no need for Court-martial. General Saussier however decides with Esterhazy that demanding a Court-martial is the best course to clear him completely.
1898/01/04 Zola publishes "Letter to France."
1898/01/10 January 10-11, Esterhazy is brought to trial and is quickly unanimously acquitted by the Court-martial. Col Picquart is indicted for revealing military secrets to civilians and is put under arrest at the Mont-Valerien military prison. Fort Mont-Valerien, Paris
1898/01/11 Swayed by the Dreyfus family, Scheurer-Kestner meets with 'intellectuals', as they are called by the anti-Dreyfusard press, who believe in Dreyfus's innocence. They include Joseph Reinach, Marcel Prevost, Anatole France, Georges Clemenceau and Emile Zola.
1898/01/13 Scheurer-Kestner's term as Vice-president of the Senate is not renewed.
1898/01/13 Entitled "J'accuse...!" by editor Georges Clemenceau, the journal L'Aurore publishes Emile Zola's "Letter to the President of the Republic" accusing the military of conspiring to disgrace Dreyfus and the incompetence of the handwriting experts.
1898/01/13 In Algiers, violent antisemitic riots are taking place.
1898/01/13 The Chamber of Deputies votes to bring Zola to trial.
1898/01/14 L'Aurore publishes a series of petitions by "intellectuals" - writers, scholars, scientists - calling for a retrial. Marcel Proust, one of the initiators, succeeds in obtaining the decisive support of Anatole France's signature, January 14-16.
1898/01/18 Billot lodges a formal judicial complaint against Zola and L'Aurore.
1898/01/21 The three handwriting experts, "accused" by Zola, start a formal suit for libel.
1898/02/07 Jules Guerin organizes the Ligue antisemitique francaise.
1898/02/07 Emile Zola's trial takes place in the Cour d'Assises de la Seine (Palace of Justice, Paris) with Clemenceau 's brother and Labori as his defense, February 7-23. Palais de Justice and the Conciergerie, Paris
1898/02/10 Drumont, then Picquart and Henry fight in a duel riots erupt in Paris.
1898/02/10 During the Emile Zola's trial, General de Pellieux inadvertently acknowledges the existence of the secret file that was given to the judges at Dreyfus' 1894 military trial and quotes "le faux Henry," thereby providing new evidence for a re-trial.
1898/02/10 During Zola's trial witnesses are silenced General de Boisdeffre intimidates the Jury opponents begin a campaign to defame Zola's family anti-Semitic hoodlums mob the Court premises.
1898/02/20 The Ligue des Droits de l'Homme et du citoyen League for Human and Civic Rights is founded. Ludovic Trarieux is its first President, assisted by Emile Duclaux, Edouard Grimaux and Francis de Pressense.
1898/02/23 Zola is convicted and receives the maximum sentence for libel: one year in jail and a fine of 3000 Francs.
1898/02/23 During Faure's state funeral, writer Paul Deroulede, Jules Guerin and the Ligue des Patriotes attempt a coup. They are arrested.
1898/02/26 By decree, Picquart is dismissed from the Army
1898/02/26 Zola appeals against the judgement
1898/03/01 The Senate follows suit on the institution of a Supreme Court of Appeals, with all three Chambers sitting jointly.
1898/03/13 Lemercier-Picard, author of the forged letter quoted by General de Pellieux a month earlier (the "faux Henry"), is found hanging from the window-catch of his hotel bedroom. Circumstances of death remain unclear.
1898/04/02 Agreeing on reason of legal technicality, the Court of Appeals overturns the verdict of February 23 granting Zola a new trial.
1898/05/15 The Meline government resigns.
1898/05/23 In his Petit Journal, Ernest Judet publishes "Zola Pere et fils", an article in which he defames the past of Zola's father.
1898/05/23 Second Zola trial in Versailles. Labori appeals. Suspension.
1898/05/24 Zola sues Judet for libel.
1898/06/11 Republican demonstration to show support to Loubet.
1898/06/16 The Court of Appeals rejects Labori's appeal filed May 23.
1898/06/28 New Cabinet with Henri Brisson as Prime Minister. Godefroy Cavaignac is Minister of War.
1898/07/00 Winston Churchill writes his mother from Paris, "Bravo Zola! I'm happy to witness the complete debacle of this monstrous conspiracy
1898/07/07 Cavaignac submits to the National Assembly documents, including "le faux Henry", to prove Dreyfus' guilt. Picquart and the Socialist leader Jean Jaures publicly denounce the false evidence and challenge Cavaignac.
1898/07/09 Zola is convicted of libel in the three handwriting experts' libel trial: 2 weeks suspended prison sentence, fine of 2000 Francs, plus 5000 Francs in damages to each of the handwriting experts.
1898/07/12 Esterhazy is charged with swindling his nephew and having sent forged telegrams to Picquart in November 1897.
1898/07/13 Picquart arrested for the second time on charges brought by Cavaignac for having divulged military documents to Leblois, a civilian.
1898/07/18 Second Zola trial, Versailles. Zola is convicted again and sentenced to one year in prison and fined 2,000 Francs. In order to avoid the notice of the sentence being served and to continue fighting, Zola takes refuge in England. Labori files for appeal.
1898/07/19 Labori appeals the verdict of the three handwriting experts.
1898/07/26 Zola is suspended from the Legion d'honneur.
1898/08/03 Judet and Le Petit Journal are convicted of libel.
1898/08/05 The Court of Appeals rejects the appeal of July 19.
1898/08/10 The Court of Appeals stiffens the penalties awarded to the handwriting experts: Zola is sentenced to one month in jail, a fine of 2000 Francs and 10,000 Francs in damages to each expert.
1898/08/12 All charges against Esterhazy are dismissed.
1898/08/13 After looking through the classified Dreyfus file in the Intelligence office, Captain Cuignet concludes that documents have been forged, including the "le faux Henry" and accuses Henry of having forged the documents.
1898/08/27 Esterhazy dismissed from the army for "habitual misconduct."
1898/08/30 French Army intelligence, Colonel Henry of is confined in the prison of Mont-Valerien. Fort Mont-Valerien, Paris
1898/08/30 August 30-31, Henry confesses his perjuries against Dreyfus to Cavaignac. He is interned at the military prison, Mont-Valerien, where he commits suicide by slashing his throat with a razor. Fort Mont-Valerien, Paris
1898/08/30 Generals de Boisdeffre and de Pellieux request to be relieved from their duties.
1898/08/31 Colonel Henry kills himself by cuts his throat with a razor. Fort Mont-Valerien, Paris
1898/08/31 Esterhazy flees to Belgium, then to England.
1898/09/03 Lucie Dreyfus petitions once more the Chamber of Deputies requesting a retrial for her husband.
1898/09/03 Minister of War Cavaignac resigns, and his statement is posted throughout France.
1898/09/05 General Zurlinden, Military Governor of Paris, becomes Minister of War.
1898/09/06 Nationalist writer Charles Maurras writes an eulogy for Henry, a "man of honor" who wrote a "patriotic forgery."
1898/09/17 General Zurlinden refuses to consider the possibility of a retrial, then resigns. He is replaced by General Chanoine, but is reinstated in his former function as Military Governor of Paris.
1898/09/20 Zurlinden orders inquiries against Picquart to start.
1898/09/21 A trial against Picquart and Leblois is postponed.
1898/09/22 Picquart remains under arrest and is brought to the Cherche-Midi military prison.
1898/09/26 Citing new evidence, Prime Minister Brisson submits the Dreyfus file to the Court of Cassation requesting a retrial.
1898/09/29 The Court agrees to investigate the Dreyfus evidence.
1898/10/11 Zola's estate and furnishings are place in an absentia public auction to pay his August 10 fine (300,000 dollars in 2000). Editor Eugene Fasquelle buys the first item, Zola's desk, for the amount of the fine, 32,000 Francs, ending the sale. Emile Zola Residence, Paris
1898/10/25 Violent antisemitic demonstrations in Paris.
1898/10/25 General Chanoine resigns.
1898/10/26 The Brisson Cabinet resigns.
1898/10/29 The possibility of a retrial is finally granted.
1898/10/31 New Cabinet with Charles Dupuy as Prime Minister. Freycinet is Minister of War.
1898/11/00 November-December 1898, Joseph Reinach starts a series of articles in Le Siecle (later published as Le Crepuscule des traitres) in which he accuses Henry of connivance with Esterhazy.
1898/11/04 French troops led by Colonel Marchand evacuate Fashoda.
1898/11/18 Picquart's Court-martial begins.
1898/12/14 La Libre Parole starts a subscription to help Henry's widow in a suit against Reinach.
1898/12/31 The Ligue de la Patrie francaise (Nationalist and anti-Dreyfusard) is founded.
1899/01/21 Following another distrain order and public auction against Zola' estate, publisher Fasquelle buys a mirror and a table for 2500 Francs.
1899/01/27 Reinach's libel trial at Mme Henry's request.
1899/01/28 Proposal in the Chamber of Deputies to have the Dreyfus Case heard by a Supreme Court of Appeals, with all three Chambers sitting jointly (loi de desaisissement).
1899/02/10 The Court of Appeals rejects the demands by the Military to stop the process for retrial.
1899/02/10 The proposal, modifying the normal jurisdictional process, is voted as Law.
1899/02/16 President Felix Faure dies suddenly in his office.
1899/02/18 Emile Loubet, a supporter of the Dreyfus' cause, succeeds Felix Faure as President of the Republic.
1899/02/18 Nationalist demonstrations in Paris.
1899/03/21 First plenary session of the Supreme Court of Appeals, with all three Chambers sitting jointly, Charles Mazeau presiding. The sessions will end April 23. Cuignet and du Paty de Clam have been summoned.
1899/06/01 Du Paty de Clam is arrested.
1899/06/03 The Court of Appeals overturns the verdict of 1894. By decree, Dreyfus is called before a new Court-martial remanded at Rennes. Du Paty de Clam is arrested.
1899/06/04 At the horse races in Auteuil, Baron Christiani attacks President Loubet with his cane.
1899/06/05 Picquart is released from prison
1899/06/05 Zola returns to France from England and challenges the Versailles verdict.
1899/06/05 Dreyfus is informed that his retrial has been finally granted.
1899/06/09 Dreyfus leaves Devil's island.
1899/06/12 Prime Minister Dupuy resigns.
1899/06/22 Prime Minister Rene Waldeck-Rousseau establishes a new Cabinet, called the "government of the Republican Defense." With Socialist Millerand as new Minister of Commerce and General de Galliffet Minister of War.
1899/07/01 Dreyfus returns to France and is jailed at the military prison in Rennes.
1899/07/18 Esterhazy reveals in Le Matin that he wrote the "bordereau," but "under dictation" and by order from his superiors.
1899/08/07 The new Dreyfus trial takes place in Rennes, in Brittany, in an attempt to avoid the Parisian populace.
1899/08/12 General Mercier is subpoenaed as a witness.
1899/08/12 In Paris, the Police start arresting Nationalist demonstrators, including Paul Deroulede.
1899/08/14 In Rennes, a fanatic fires shots at Dreyfus' lawyer Labori, who remains in critical condition for a few days.
1899/09/09 Despite the evidence of his innocence, the Military Court finds Dreyfus guilty of treason once again, this time with "extenuating circumstances," and condemns him to ten years detention. The verdict causes an uproar.
1899/09/19 With full approval of the Waldeck-Rousseau Cabinet, President Loubet signs Dreyfus' pardon. Alfred Dreyfus accepts clemency with the provision he can continue to fight for exoneration.
1899/09/19 Scheurer-Kestner, who has been battling cancer for a long time, dies.
1899/09/20 From Aug 12th to Sept 20, Jules Guerin, director of L'Antijuif, an antisemitic paper, barricades himself with friends at the Ligue des Patriotes headquarters, rue de Chabrol. The stunt is nicknamed by the press "the siege of Fort Chabrol".
1899/09/21 Minister of War, General de Galliffet, proclaims in a military order: "the incident is over."
1900/03/01 A bill calling for amnesty of all matters related with the Affair is introduced by the Senate.
1900/04/15 Inauguration of the Universal Exhibition in Paris.
1900/05/28 Galliffet resigns as Minister of War. He is replaced by General Andre.
1900/12/18 The Chamber of Deputies passes the "amnesty law", covering all infractions of law and all lawsuits tied to the Dreyfus Affair.
1900/12/27 The Senate passes the general amnesty law. Alfred Dreyfus is granted an exception in order to pursue his case for exoneration.
1902/06/15 Prime Minister Emile Combes' new Cabinet includes General Andre as Minister of War .
1902/10/05 About 50,000 mourners attend Emile zola's funeral at the Montmartre Cemetery, including government ministers and delegations of miners and Freemasons. Anatole France declares that "he was a moment in the conscience of man". Montmartre Cemetery, Paris
1903/04/06 In the Chamber of Deputies, Jaures calls for retrial of the Rennes verdict, citing the "bordereau" as a probable influence on the judges' decision.
1903/06/04 Minister of War Andre asks his deputy, Captain Targe, to begin investigation on the Rennes verdict.
1903/09/01 Bernard-Lazare dies.
1903/10/19 General Andre announces the conclusions of Captain Targe are favorable to Dreyfus and that they open the possibility of a retrial.
1903/11/26 Dreyfus requests from the Minister of Justice a retrial of his Rennes conviction based on General Andre's inquiry.
1904/03/05 The Criminal Chamber of Cassation grants Dreyfus a re-investigation of his case.
1904/11/19 Dreyfus re-investigation of his case is favorable to him.
1904/11/28 The Criminal Chamber grants Dreyfus an appeal of his case, which must be referred to the Supreme Court of Appeals, with all three Chambers sitting jointly.
1905/12/00 Law establishing a drastic separation of Church and State.
1906/00/00 Captain Alfred Dreyfus rehabilitation ceremony takes place in the Cour Jardin of the Military School, Paris. Ecole Militaire, Paris
1906/02/18 The mandate of Emile Loubet as President ends. He is the first President, since the proclamation of the Third Republic in 1871, to finish his full term. Armand Fallieres is elected to replace him.
1906/07/12 After a new inquiry, the Supreme Court of Appeals, with all three Chambers sitting jointly, annuls the Rennes verdict, pronounces the rehabilitation of Dreyfus and proclaims his innocence.
1906/07/13 The Chamber of Deputies passes a law reinstating Dreyfus in the Army as a Lieutenant-Colonel and Picquart as Commander-General. Another bill is passed for Zola's ashes to be placed in the Pantheon.
1906/07/20 Alfred Dreyfus is made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in the same courtyard of the Ecole Militaire where he had been degraded. To the enthusiastic yells of "Long Live Dreyfus!" he shouts back: "No, gentlemen, no, I beg of you. Long Live France!"
1906/10/15 Colonel Dreyfus resumes his command of an artillery unit at Vincennes. Chateau de Vincennes, Paris
1906/10/25 The new President of the Republic, Fallieres, asks Clemenceau to head a new cabinet in which Commander-General Picquart is made Minister of War.
1907/07/26 Alfred Dreyfus retires from Army and begins a very private life.
1908/06/06 Zola's ashes are transferred to the Pantheon. During the ceremony, Louis Gregori, a journalist, fires two shots at Dreyfus, slightly wounding him in the arm. The fanatic is acquitted September 11. Pantheon, Paris
1914/01/19 Picquart dies in a riding accident and is buried at a state funeral.
1916/00/00 After reenlisting in 1916, Du Paty de Clam dies from wounds received in action on the Marne.
1917/00/00 Retired Commander Dreyfus, reenlists and fights at Verdun. His son Pierre is gassed Mathieu's son, Emile, and his son-in-law - Adolphe, Joseph Reinach's son - both die in combat.
1917/00/00 Schwartzkoppen reenlists. Taken ill on the eastern front, he dies. On his deathbed, he suddenly cries: "People of France, hear me! Dreyfus is innocent!"
1917/00/00 Edouard Drumont dies almost destitute.
1917/00/00 Reserve Officer Alfred Dreyfus, serves at the front during WWI at the Chemin des Dames and Verdun. His son Pierre is gassed. Mathieu's son, Emile, and his son-in-law - Adolphe, Joseph Reinach's son - both die in combat. Verdun Forts Circuit, Verdun
1917/00/00 Georges Clemenceau becomes Prime minister.
1921/00/00 Death of Joseph Reinach
1923/00/00 Esterhazy dies, hiding under a new identity, in exile in England
1926/00/00 The Vatican condemns Maurras and his Action Francaise
1929/00/00 Death of Clemenceau
1930/00/00 Mathieu Dreyfus dies.
1935/07/14 Alfred Dreyfus funeral procession passes the Place de la Concorde through the ranks of troops assembled for the Bastille Day national holiday. Place de la Concorde, Paris
1940/06/17 After Nazi troops capture Paris, Marshal Henri Petain replaces Paul Reynaud as prime minister and announces his intention to sign an armistice with the Third Reich.
1940/06/18 French General Charles de Gaulle broadcast to France from England a plea to continue the fight against Germany.
1940/06/25 Signed on June 22, the French and German armistice takes.
1940/07/00 With more than half of France occupied by the German army, Petain takes office as "chief of state" at Vichy in unoccupied France.
1941/00/00 In German occupied France, anti-Semitic laws are implemented by French Vichy State police, under Prime Minister Pierre Laval. Du Paty de Clam's son is named Commissaire general aux Questions Juives.
1941/00/00 Lucie Dreyfus and her family take refuge in Montpellier.
1943/00/00 Jean Pierre, grand-son of Mathieu, a member of the Free French Forces, is killed during a mission. Madeleine, one of Alfred's grand-daughters and a member of the Resistance, is deported to Auschwitz where she dies in 1943.
1945/00/00 Laval is tried, found guilty of treason and is condemned to death. He is executed by firing squad.
1945/01/00 Trial of Charles Maurras, one of the leaders of Action Francaise, for collaboration. Condemned to perpetual confinement, he shouts: "This is the revenge of the Dreyfus Case!"
1945/08/00 Petain is tried for treason, found guilty and is condemned to death. General de Gaulle commutes the penalty to solitary confinement.
1972/00/00 The City Council of Rennes decides not to dedicate the high-school in which the second trial took place in 1899 to Alfred Dreyfus. It is however named Lycee Emile Zola.
1973/00/00 A law prohibiting any demonstration of anti-Semitism is unanimously voted at the National Assembly: "In France, anti-Semitism is not a matter of opinion, it is a crime" (Prime Minister Michel Rocard, 1990).
1985/00/00 A statue of Alfred Dreyfus by artist Tim, commissioned by Minister of Culture Jack Lang, cannot be installed in the Ecole Militaire courtyard where the degradation took place in 1895 the Army refuses its approval.
1988/06/09 The statue of Alfred Dreyfus is placed in the Tuileries Garden. It will be ultimately installed on the Boulevard Raspail.
1994/02/00 Colonel Gaujac, editor of a monthly brochure published by the Army, is retired after the uproar caused by an article concluding that: "today, the innocence of Dreyfus is the theory generally accepted by historians."
1995/09/00 The French Army General Mourrut, in full dress uniform, declares to the Jewish Consistory (French Jewish Central Council): "the affair was a military conspiracy which ended in the deportation of an innocent man and was partly founded on a false document"
1998/01/13 On the 100th anniversary of "J'accuse...!", PM Lionel Jospin and the entire French Parliament honor Emile Zola's stand for Truth and Justice. A giant reproduction of Zola's "J'accuse...!" is draped on the front wall of the National Assembly in Paris.
1998/01/13 President of the French Republic, Jacques Chirac, answers to J'accuse...! By formally apologizing to the Dreyfus and Zola families and expressing France's gratitude for their courage confronting hate, injustice and intolerance.
1999/12/01 The City of Paris decides to name a square after Alfred Dreyfus in the 15th Arrondissement at the corner of the Avenue Emile-Zola.

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